Damavand Frozen Waterfall (5100 m) (Photo: Torkan Shafighfard)
The Frozen waterfall is at the altitude of 5100 meters and on the southern side of Damavand. The height of this waterfall is between 7-12 meters. In summer, due to the heat, there is a thick line of water running in this waterfall. Reaching this waterfall needs to be strayed from the southern route.
Damavand Frozen Waterfall (5100 m)
The frozen waterfall is the highest waterfall in the middle east in the aspect meters above sea level.
This monument is an attraction and a natural sign of Mount Damavand. It has been tryst for mountaineers over all these years. It is a shame that this unique monument has suffered destruction due to global warming.
While entering the Damavand summit, where you can see some signs which represents the peak, you can see the corpse of two mammals. They seem to be mummies, and the reason that they are in good condition must be the cold weather and the sulfur. The exact cause of the creation of this corpse is not clear, but they’ve laid there for over 20 years. They must have been part of a pack. They are dead because of the poisoning of sulfur gas of the cold weather. In the past years, some people have destructed this remains. They believed that some animal remains should not present the mountain. But the point is that Damavand is an individual monument and these corpses were just a sign.
While standing on the third station looking at the Damavand, you’re looking at a 5400m fake summit.
Damavand Fake Summit
In the hike to Damavand from the southern route, that because of the existence of welfare facilities is the most touristic track to conquer Damavand.
On the hike when we reach the third shelter which is the last camp before the summit, we desire to see the peak. You can’t see the Damavand, and the peak you see is a fake summit with the height of 5400m. It is known as the stony tringle. Upon getting closer to it, we’ll be able to see the real top. Keep it in mind that Damavand is a volcanic mountain.
Looking at Damavand from the fake summit, you can tell the difference in the geological shape of the area. The sulfuric chimnies will be the boldest and noticeable change realizing sulfuric gas leaving behind the yellow chemicals of sulfur on the ground. This area is commonly called the danger zone. From here you’re going to climb a rather gentle slope to the top of the mountain.
Damavand is the first national natural monument in Iran. Also, it’s the highest mountain in Iran, the highest volcano in Asia, and the highest conical mountain in the world.
But what is the exact altitude of this peak? If we want to be a little punctilious, we will doubt Damavand accurate height. Because if we look at pictures and memorials, we will face different numbers.
Damavand in the history
In 744 BC and the Assyrian era, they knew Damavand by the name, Bikeni. Since then, this mythic mountain has always been sacred for Iranians. In the Avesta, the Torah and many other historical texts, Damavand name has been written. Williams Jackson, an American in the 19th century in Tehran, writes:
We know Damavand by the name of Havabarze’iti (هوابرزئیتی) from the Avesta. Many of the tourists and prominent people who entered Iran from Qajar afterward have mentioned Damavand and various altitudes for it from 14,000 to 22,000 feet.
According to the National portal of statistics of Iran, the height of Damavand Mountain from the open water level is 5, 610 meters. The National Mapping Organization of Iran in 2006, during a ten-day project, measured the exact height of the summit. They recorded the number 5609 (five thousand six hundred and nine meters and twenty centimeters) for the peak. After that, the reduced number of 5610 meters was the exact height of Damavand in the resources.
In the past, some different altitudes were known for Mount Damavand. Because of that, you may also have heard the altitude of 5670 meters. But it is not the exact height of the peak.
The relative height of Damavand, which is determined by measuring the height of the peak corresponding to the lowest valley between this summit and the nearest high mountain, is 4,667 meters. This places Damavand in the 12th rank among the highest peaks of the world in terms of relative height.
In this picture, you can see the beauty of Damavand Peak with its cloud cap.
How do you think these beautiful clouds appear on the top of high peaks?
Damavand Cloud Cap
Damavand from the International Space Station / French Astronaut
This mountain has a cloudy hat in Iran! Astronauts present at the International Space Station continually cross the Earth. This time, passing through Iran they have taken an impressive image of cloud cover on one of the mountains.
Damavand Cloud Cap
Cloud caps often take shape on the top of the individual mountains. These clouds are floor like and due to the sudden drop in temperature they take form on the high peaks. Temperature drop causes freezing of the humidity in the air. With the Rotational movement of the air around the summit, they appear like a cloud.
After having an impact with the hillside, the airflow will climb the mountain, due to the altitude increase it will suffer a temperature drop. This process happens in part a-b in the picture below. Due to the air cooling to the new saturation point, the vapor content of the air can not remain in the form of gas. So it becomes very droplets of water or cloud. It’s like what happens to the air that comes out of our mouth in winter. After that, the airflow will continue to reduce energy levels to somewhere around the peak. During this process, condensation energy released by droplets of water increases the temperature of a balloon formed by fine droplets or a cloud of rain. The airflow will fall back to the hillside after reaching the top, due to a reverse reaction its temperature will rise.
Damavand Cloud Cap
This reciprocal flow continues to point c in the picture. As the temperature increase causes the evaporation of clouded droplets and gradually decreases the density of the cloud layers. Despite the fast and robust airflow, the formed cloud will remain on the peak. Two reverse expansion and compression mechanisms on both sides of the mountain caused by the airflows are why the cloud cap has appeared.
https://alibabatrek.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/alibabatrek-Volcanic-Seven-Summits-Conquest-Damavand-iran-blog-Iran-Tour.jpg246350mohammadhttps://alibabatrek.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/Alibabatrek-Iran-tour-operator-iran-tours-iran-travel-agency.pngmohammad2019-05-04 10:18:392019-05-07 11:29:46Damavand Cloud Cap
Volcanic craters are consequences of some internal volcanic interactions of the earth. The explosion of magma in the form of pressured gas and lava creates lakes on some of these craters. The size and depth of the volcanic craters may be large.
Damavand lava covers an area of about 400 km2. Besides, the newest lava is in the western cone, and there are cones of ash on this domain. Damavand Peak is relatively broad. On the south side and at an altitude of 5100 meters, gases are visible. This place belongs to an old crater, which is surrounded by the present conical summit. On the southeastern side, volcanic mapping takes a broad area.
Damavand is a semi-active volcanic mountain formed mainly during the Quaternary. Its first eruption was about 1/78 million years ago. However, the maximum number of explosions occurred between 600,000 and 280,000 years ago .geologists have an estimated lifetime of this mountain with the carbon-14 method, and it is at least 38,500 years. The presence of several sulfur springs and hot springs is evidence of the half-effect of this volcano. The most significant and most volcanic activity of this mountain occurred about 10,000 years ago, which has led to its formation.
Damavand volcano crater
The crater of the volcano is about 400 meters in diameter. An ice lake has covered The central part of the cavity. On the sidelines, some chimneys make the surrounding land yellow. Apart from the current pit, we can see the evidence of the old crater. One of these old openings is on the south side and at an altitude of 100 meters. It is now the location of the exhaust gases and smoke. On the northern side of Damavand, there is another effect of an old crater of about 9 kilometers in diameter.
“Congratulations! You have successfully reached the summit. Great job! Please take the pictures ASAP cause the weather is getting harsh, and we should descend…”
In the Alibabatrek’s Office
I was sitting in the Alibabatrek’s office waiting to meet my new team. The new team consists of 2 German guys and 2 French who wanted to summit mount Damavand.
They were a few minutes late. So, I picked my notebook and started writing the schedule of climbing to the summit. It included the things I should do, the foods and snacks I should buy and the planning for reaching the peak. But then I decided to wait for tourmates to complete my information. Because my experiences have shown me I should be aware of the food habits of my tourmates. I should also know about their physical readiness and write them down in my notebook.
When The Guests Arrived
The doorbell rang; it was the guests. After having tea and cake and some short talks in the conference room, we started discussing the technical tips for climbing. After looking at their body styles and hearing their questions, I got that we won’t have any problems for physical readiness. The only thing that I wasn’t sure about was acclimatization. Well, it has its special techniques. I asked them about the highest height they have ever reached and when it was. The reason I asked them these questions was to arrange a better plan for their acclimatization. I showed them a report plus some photos and videos of Damavand. We also checked out the climbing route together. Then, we checked the weather forecasts for the upcoming days in the mountain and shared all our information.
Then, it was time for checking the equipment and clothes. This way we understood if it was necessary to buy anything. They needed a pair of gloves and a sleeping bag due to the cold weather and climbing season. So, we prepared the things they needed for them. There wasn’t any particular problem with their food habits.
After having a cup of tea in the office, we were on our way to Rineh village near mount Damavand. It takes 2-3 hours from Tehran to Rineh. After arriving at Rineh, we went to a local house which had an amiable atmosphere. I had been in this house a few times before. The owners of the house were a loving family. Reception of the guests had turned into their job.
Near sunset, we went for a walk in the village so that our guests would get to know more of there. We came back to the local house for dinner. They had prepared a traditional meal for us. What a Ghormeh Sabzi! After having dinner, we sat in the yard and chatted while drinking tea and coffee. We also reviewed our climbing plan. Of course, I always act in a way that makes them relaxed and takes the stress away from them.
Climbing to The Peak
We got up and had breakfast in the morning. Then, we had free time till lunch. So, I told my team that they could have a walk in the village or do other personal stuff. The lunch was very delicious Iranian food, and we enjoyed it very much. We usually care a lot about choosing food that our guests would enjoy. After having lunch, we started going to the camp. In this part, we should get on a jeep. It’s a safe road but has so many bumps and is very shaky!
Damavand Bargah2 (Goosfandsara)
After reaching the camp, we went to our room (which we had reserved before) and put our stuff there. Then I gathered the team and explained some points for them to make them ready for light hiking and acclimatization. It can be beneficial because I can test my team’s abilities. The acclimatization took 4-5 hours and then we came back to the camp. After having dinner, I told my team that they should rest because next morning we will go to the next camp.
We were lucky that the sky was clear and we could see the beautiful sky again. I started looking for the constellations and checking the directions. Doing this is always enjoyable for me, and I wished I could be an astronomer. I do this almost every night that the sky is clear in the mountains.
I woke up a bit earlier than the others in the morning to pack the stuff and deliver them to the porters. Then I made breakfast. As always, I had to argue with the porters. I don’t know why this always happens, and all the guides have this problem with them.
Finally, we started climbing! We can see so many interesting stones and cliffs on our way. I can have fun with them a bit! As a tour leader that has to passes from this path frequently, I have found my hobbies. One of them is these stones that look like animals in specific views. Some of them look in a way as if they are looking at you.
on the way to the hut
We will stop in some places for resting a bit and having snacks. Finally, we will reach the last slope, and the camp appears. After entering the camp, I will show the rooms to the team and give them a short time for resting. Then, I call them over for having lunch. We will go for acclimatization again 2-3 hours after lunch. After coming back, I will prepare dinner and then send the team to their rooms. So they can rest well for next day climbings. Before they go to sleep, I will ask them about how they are. I will immediately take the necessary measures if there is any problem. Typically, nothing significant happens. Except, the body of some of the hikers needs more time for getting adapted to the height.
At the end of the night, I will chat with some of my friends who are mount leaders in other companies. We usually review our memories.
The Sulfur Smoke
I get enthusiastic on the days we are going to reach the summit. The thought that I’m some other person’s guide makes me a bit sleepless. In the morning, I woke up earlier than the others and make breakfast. I will wake anyone who still sleeps so we won’t be late. We will have the last talks before getting to the summit, and then we start going. If we are lucky enough we can see a wild goat flock upper than our camp. I have seen them a few times before and have taken some pictures of them.
The frozen fountain on our way is the sign that shows we have climbed half of the way. From this point on, everything starts looking a bit different. The shape of glaciers looks like sawtooth; the hills are sulfuric and yellow. And you can smell the sulfur. All these show that Damavand is more than just a regular mount. Near the summit, if the wind blows to our path, we will face the sulfur smoke which can be hurtful. In a few meters to the summit, we can see Damavand’s caldera.” Congratulations! You have reached the summit! Great job!”. These are the sentences I tell my team when they reach the summit. After taking so many photos, we will start going back.
Mt.Damavand’s Summit (5671m)
https://alibabatrek.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/alibabatrek-Memories-of-a-Leader-Damavand-iran-blog-Damavand-tour-trekking-Iran-Tour.jpg246350mohammadhttps://alibabatrek.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/Alibabatrek-Iran-tour-operator-iran-tours-iran-travel-agency.pngmohammad2019-04-21 09:54:432019-04-27 10:46:03The Memories of A Damavand Tour Leader
11) Are you familiar with Damavand area and routes?
If you are climbing Damavand for the first time, it is best to climb with guides. Although there are footprints along the way, the presence of unstable stones and sudden changes in the weather may cause problems. According to the existence of facilities in Rineh and Plour, the southern route is the easiest way to climb Damavand.
12) Can you stay in a tent or shelter in Damavand?
In Bargah-e sevom, except the two existing shelters, there are also flat and suitable spaces for the construction of tents. There might be a lack of space on the weekend that’s why we recommend you to take a tour.
13) Are there any transportation options?
It’s better not to take extra, and cumbersome gear. You can use livestock to carry your packs so you can save energy for the summit day. Some people use the mule to move the equipment up from Goosfand Sara to Bargah-e Sevom. At the final stage of climbing, climb to the summit by taking necessary stuff with a smaller backpack.
14)Is drinking water available in Damavand?
The water at the higher altitudes of this area is freezing throughout the night. You should be able to use it during the day. Due to the small number of impurities and tasting water, you can use water tablets. Access to drinking water on the northern route is more difficult than other ways. You might need to melt snow to provide drinking water. But on the southern route, mineral water can be bought from the shelter.
15) Is there a problem of air temperature or height matching in Damavand?
Some people quickly adapt to altitude, while others have acute mountain eardrums and require a longer time to fit the height.
The most important symptoms that occur until they get matched with the altitude are headaches, nausea, and dizziness. To overcome these problems, climbers can climb to a height of 4500 meters and descend back to the shelter. In case of further issues and more severe symptoms, the person can go back to a lower altitude. Alibabatrek company has made this situation easy for the hikers with proficiency in Iran trekking tour. Also, in some cases, you can fix this by deploying more days in height.
16) How to navigate the route to Damavand peak?
One of the first points in climbing activity is to move slowly and steadily. The division of energy into the entire path is possible with slow and steady steps, especially on long distance with a higher slope. Also, the joy and fun of mountains and hiking are not just in reaching the peak. You must enjoy watching nature and the attractions of the routes.
Try to move slowly, breath correctly, drink sweet liquids, and have short rest can make climbing easier for you. It is better that at least one of the members of the group has already climbed to the summit of Damavand. It is better for those who are not ready to reach the peak to stand back from the last climb.
17) What diet plan is suitable for climbing Damavand?
The best foods for mountaineering are low-volume and energy-saving foods. Also, meals should be used to not corrupt, especially in warmer seasons. But in general, we suggest you solve this problem by taking a tour. So you can leave this responsibility to your guide.
18) Suggestions for a better ascent!
If you are into reading, we suggest you bring a small book so you can read it in your free time.
We suggest you bring a camera so you can capture the fancy landscapes and climbing moments.
You can enjoy your time by listening to music, so bring a music player.
If you write down your journal, you can bring a notepad with yourself so you can write down your memories.
19) Can I join another Damavand group or do I have to go solo?
We often have a group leaving for Damavand. You can join them if we have one on your requested day. If you want to go solo, it is also possible to take a private tour.
20) Can I have a cultural tour alongside my Damavand tour?
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Mount Damavand the highest mountain in Iran and the tallest volcano in the Middle East. This mountain is in the central part of the Alborz mountain range (Central Alborz). In the south of the Caspian Sea and the Larijan district of Amol city.
Alibabatrek Damavand guides have observed All that we mentioned in the list. Hikers can experience a safe and enjoyable Damavand climbing tour along with a much Damavand climbing guidance.
1) Do we have access to mobile and electricity networks in Damavand?
Climbers can use telecommunication facilities and the Internet on the southern route, at shelters and even at Damavand Summit. Also, in Damavand Camp III (Bargah-e Sevom), with a height of 4200 meters, it is possible to recharge electronics. However, we recommend that climbers bring a power bank. Mountaineers and tourists can take advantage of their mobile modem equipment on their trips with Alibabatrek.
2) What types of cameras can we use during hiking up Mount Damavand?
Due to the possibility of transferring cargo to the third camp, you can easily use most of the cameras. Maybe it’s better to use small cameras on the climbing day to the peak to lower the weight. But with professional fitness and decreasing the peak level, you can use professional cameras as well.
3) Is there any possibility of bathing in Damavand camps?
Get ready to climb Damavand for 3-4 days. Although there is no problem in providing water for washing, due to cold weather and the environment, there is no place for bathing. But after returning from Mount Damavand, you can enjoy swimming in the Larijan spring.
4) Are there adequate sanitary facilities in Damavand area?
In Damavand camps, especially in the South, climbers can use adequate sanitary facilities.
5)What outfits are suitable for climbing Damavand and what equipment should we have?
In different seasons, climbing Damavand requires different clothes. But the apparel needed in the regular climb season is the following:
A large backpack or bag for carrying your stuff with a mule
A small backpack for climbing equipment
A sleeping bag with a Comfort -5 temperature
A climbing baton
Cortex jacket and pants
Polar coat and pants
First and second layer shirts and trousers
Suitable climbing shoes for the season
Two pairs of Woolen socks
Suitable gloves for the season
The necessary dishes (knives, glasses, spoons, flakes, forks)
A thermos or bottles of water
A mobile phone and a power bank a toothbrush and toothpaste
Notepads and pens
Yarn and needles
personalized first aid
authentic identification cards
6) What medicine should we take while we are climbing?
Having high-healing drugs can be a good help in emergencies. But their use is not recommended without consulting the expert and mountain guide. However, the elevation of the eclipse is one of the most common diseases in the mountains. Alibabatrek Damavand guides will guide you in emergency cases. They have a good experience and have passed mountain medical courses. If you are under specific treatment, take your medication with you and tell your guide and our agency about it.
7) How much preparation is required to climb Mount Damavand?
Sufficient physical fitness is the first requirement for climbing Mount Damavand. Hiking to the summit of Damavand from the southern route, it is not difficult for those who regularly go birding and have enough physical fitness. Of course, the sulfur gas near the summit may bring the end of the climb a little bit more effortlessly.
8) What months of the year should we climb?
Mount Damavand’s weather in April and May is volatile and accompanied by severe storms. These can disrupt climbing programs and increase the likelihood of accidents. The best time to climb Mount Damavand is in July and August.
9) What days of the week should we climb?
We can refer this part to the southern route. Because the southern aspect of Damavand is the easiest way to climb, The presence of countless climbers along this path brings a lot of crowdedness and a lot of noise. This will prevent resting and easy climbing. The crowdedness is visible at the weekends. Therefore, we suggest that the climbing programs for this route take time in the first days of the week.
10) What time should we climb the day?
According to most climbers, it is better to climb in the night due to the warmth of the sunlight and the smell of sulfur. Sunshine may not cause many problems. Having a good rest at night and climb with more energy is our priority. The Damavand mountaineering tour that we have organized has a daily program till 7:00 pm. You can have time for personal activities or rest.
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Iran is a country of four seasons. Due to the specific geographical location of Iran, its placement between the two seas and its particular topography, you can find unique species of plants and animals in Iran.
Iran’s vegetation diversity is so vast that it is unique in other Middle East countries. Vegetation has covered a massive part of Iran due to the establishment of dry and semi-arid areas caused by the tropical tidal belt operating area. Because of the specific characteristics of Iranian ecology, vegetation diversity in Iran is always observed. This variation depends on the natural state of the climate. The boundaries of vegetation and animal areas are not completely clear. But concerning the weather, you can see the difference between plants and animals in three temperate regions of the Caspian. Temperate mountainous, and desert and semi-desert regions.
Flora of Iran
Fauna of Iran
Due to the geographical diversity, the existence of forests, deserts, mountains, seas and…, Iran is a habitat for various animal species. In the meantime, there are rare species such as Persian Caracal, Goitered gazelle, Iranian Cheetah, Maral, which is unique to Iran.
In addition to having a mammal, Iran has a variety of aquatic animals, birds, and reptiles. Four seasonal weather conditions in Iran have made the land not only the origin of native birds. Also, it has made Iran the primary source of migratory birds from the northern regions of Asia, Russia, and Siberia. The existence of two free-flowing seas in the south and the north has led to a variety of aquatic species. In the case of reptiles, the nature of Iran is the habitat of many reptiles and amphibians.
Fauna of Iran
Wildlife of Damavand
Mount Damavand is 5671 meters high. The highest mountain in Iran and the Middle East and the highest volcanic peak in Asia. In aspects of natural attractions, the Damavand slopes are unique. It consists of many hot and mineral springs, beautiful and lush valleys. The Plour Valley, the yellow flower Valley and the last but not least Damavand Peak are some of these attractions. Damavand honey is a typical product of Damavand wildlife. According to these features climbing Damavand on your own or taking a mount Damavand tour is a perfect idea.
But due to the non-expert development of this area, there are human risks. Mining, road construction, waste and most importantly, excessive livestock grazing are treating the wildlife of Mount Damavand.
Persian Goat – Mt.Damavand
Flora of Damavand
At various altitudes of Mount Damavand, there are plenty of plants, some of which are only visible at a certain height. The plants of this region: Kolah-e Mir Hassan Damavandi, Kezel Damavandi, Bu Madaran-e Damavandi, Pir Giah-e Damavandi, and others.
The vegetation of the southern, northern, eastern and western slopes of Damavand is different and does not have a steady image. At the height of 3200 to 3500 meters, there are grass and long, spiny and interconnected bits.
Anemone flower has covered Mount Damavand range at altitudes of 2000 to 3500 meters. This unique anemone is well-known in the world. People know it y the name, Shaghayegh-e Lar in the world’s leading botanical books.
Shaghayegh-e Lar, Mt.Damavand
Fauna of Damavand
Damavand mountain ranges and its heights are well suited for creating a unique fauna. Due to its exceptional location, which runs from the north to the forest and the south to the mountains bordered by the Kavir, this region hosts a variety of animals.
Mt.Damavand-Photographer: Sina Abbasnejad
Mammals of Mount Damavand:
the hedgehogs of Europe
the Hedgehog (in the foothills)
the fawn bat
the serotine bat
the long wing bat (in caves and mines)
the gray hamster
the usual butterfly (in highlands and mountains)
Boar and Pumpkin
Can be mentioned in valleys, mountains, valleys, and slopes of Damavand.
Birds of Mount Damavand:
The birds are quite various, including the species of hawks, pigeons, owls, nightgowns, swallows, lobsters, bream barns, eels, wheel rims, and crows.
Reptiles are found in lower elevations, mountain peaks, and valleys, and include some unique species in Iran. From Snakes, Macrovipera le Betina, Alborzi Vipera, Damavandi Vipera, Caucasian Vipera (from the Poisonous Group) and many other species.
Birds of Mt.Damavand-Photographer: Babak Aliabadi
Mummies of Mount Damavand:
On the top of mount Damavand, you can find some frozen animal carcasses. People have seen them in this place for many years, and they include animals such as sheep and goat. The reason for finding these animals at the top of Mount Damavand and their death is not well known. Maybe due to the presence of sulfur gas, freezing temperature, starvation or some other reasons they are dead.
Mt.Damavand’s Summit (5671m) – (There is a sheep mummy on the right side)
Note about climbing Damavand
If you are into hiking and you might want to try Mount Damavand. You should consider that due to Damavand difficulty level you might need a Damavand climbing guide because many great hikers have lost their lives in this mountain.